With yet another revolution in France, revolution was in the air. This put the people and government of the Austrian Empire on the edge of their seats. The Austrian people kept on poking at the idea of revolution. And in March 1848, action was taken. Louis Kossuth wanted Hungary to become a commonwealth of the Austrian Empire. This would mean that Hungary would have its own government and act like its own country, but it would still have to listen to the Austrian Empire and pledge allegiance to him. Then in Vienna,revolutionary forces took control of the city and had a constitution drawn up. This allowed for Hungary to get what it wanted, semi-independence. However, this was not the end. While the Austrian Empire did allow for the Hungarians to make their own laws at first, eventually they started cutting in. The Austrians slowly began to take away rights from the Hungarian. As each right got chipped away from the Hungarians, they got more and more mad. Eventually, the Hungarians began fighting back, how ever they did so violently. In this revolution, the Hungarians beat the Austrians, and were winning the war. But, in a last ditch effort to not lose Hungary, the Austrians asked for foreign help. in 1849, Czar Nicholas I sent over 140,000 Russians who snuffed out the rebels, thus ending the revolution in Austria.
Britain is good
During this time of mass revolution, Britain remained relatively at peace. While there were still riots, Britain did not have any revolutions. This can be credited to the Reform Act of 1832. This momentous act allowed for a the people to become more involved in politics. This stopped revolution because of the people really wanted something done, they did not have to resort to violence. Instead, they could merely communicate it to parliament with the power of their vote. The Reform act of 1867 enforced these idea. Then, Gladstone led a liberal administration. This administration made many reforms. The Education Act of 1870 tried to make elementary schools available for all British children. Britain really utilized and maintained the competitive driving force by getting rid of abuses and allowing all people with talent to gain grounds in their respective field. This allowed for the British nation to become more progressive, allowing its people more freedom and strengthening the already strong British Economy.
After Napoleon Bonaparte tried to take over Russia in 1812, Russian czar Alexander saved the country of Russia and stopped the French plague of Napoleon that was spreading throughout the continent of Europe. however, Czar Alexander I died in 1855, putting his son, Alexander II, in charge. Alexander II was a very different ruler than his father. Alexander II wanted to industrialize Russia. In an attempt to do this, he freed the serfs. The emancipation of the serfs is probably the biggest political change in Russia, but none the less important. Alexander the II also sold alaska to the Americans, battled with the Chinese empire. But he was not popular among everyone. In 1881, he was assassinated by Narodnaya Volya, a member of the Nahlst Terrorist group. However, upon his death, Alexander II relinquished the throne to his son, Alexander III. Alexander III reestablished the serfs, yet Alexander II’s emancipation had some effects on the economy of Russia.
With Otto Von Bismarck pushing the borders of his newly forming Germany. After kicking out the Aurtians in the Austro-Prussian war, Otto Van Bismark went after the French. For the Prussian, this war was personal. Because the French’s new leader was Napoleon Boneparte’s nephew, Napoleon III, this war was for more than land. When Napoleon Boneparte and his armies went parading around Europe, the Prussians and the French had gone at it. And while the Prussians had won, there was still bad blood between the two groups. Bismarck himself felt that in order to make a united Germany, it was important for the Germanic people to experience a military victory over the French. Likewise, the Napoleon III also felt a deep hate for the Prussians. His Uncle had lost to them, and had got exiled to St. Helena. In this grudge match, the Prussians won the war, kicking the French out of the soon to be Germany. Then, Bismarck had taken the land he felt was needed for the French and began running the new country Germany.
After the fall of Napoleon’s Empire, the concert of Europe was formed. This returned France’s borders back to the way they were before Napoleon went crazy and conquested about Europe. In order to stop another Napoleon incident from happening in France, the concert of Europe put a new king in charge of France. Charles X was the new king, and he tried to maintain conservative ideals. However, the French economy started tanking, so when the French people started starving again, stuff went down. Then in a fit of rage, the French people started revolting. They kicked the King out of the country (he fled to Britain). The French then made yet another French Republic. But then ironically, Napoleon Bonaparte’s nephew, Napoleon III rose to power and changed the republic into an empire, thus making yet another French empire. Napoleon III was not as ambitious as his uncle, and while he did have some wars, he did not try to take over Europe.
The Industrial Revolution was an important economic shift in Europe, primarily in Britain. The Industrial Revolution affected the daily lives of the British as more and more moved into large city in search of jobs. In fact, at the beginning of the 19th century, 20% of all British citizens lived in cities, but at the end of the 19th century, nearly 67% of the population lived in cities. Because of its effects on the the Brithsh way of life, politics in Europe were largely shaped by the Industrial Revolution. In these cities, many common people were put through terrible working conditions, men, women, and children alike. Because Britain’s form of government, people in Parliament had to listen to the demands of the people and raise working conditions. In 1819, a law was passed outlawing child labour. In 1850, a law was passed that guaranteed 1.5 hour total meal break to workers along with a law that outlawed women from working 12 or more hours a day. Then in 1871, bank holidyas were created guaranteeing work days off.
Under Cavour, the new leadership in the Kingdom of Piedmont, the people of Piedmont had stumbled into wealth. With all this extra bank roll, Cavour dropped some major Benjamins (or what ever it is in Italy) on his army. Then, in 1852, he, along with France, began the invasion of the Italian peninsula. however, the Austrians had similar pursuits and they 3 nations began fighting, France and Piedmont vs. the Austrian Empire. France and Piedmont had won the first two major battles. However, in typical French form, the French still feared the might of the Austrian armies and signed a treaty with the Austrians, behind the Kingdom of Piedmont’s back. But in the end of the war, the Piedmonts won and now a bitter taste of French deceit in their mouth. In the South, an Italian Rebel named Garibaldi began rebelling, but the hardened Piedmont army showed the the rebels who was boss.
As seen in the picture, Italy had broken apart into many different nations; in fact, it would not completely unified until 1870. The Unification started started in 1852 when the new king of the Kingdom of Piedmont, Victor Emmanual II, named Count Camillo di Cavour the new prime minister of the Kingdom. Cavour was a well spoken man who could persuade any politician to see it his way. Maybe this is why the Count was a business mogul who earned his wealth with his success in agriculture. He was a moderate and a man who was a proponent of constitutional government. As prime minister, the count tried to push economic expansion by encouraging roads, bridges and canals to be made. He also helped businesses grow by expanding credit and trying to promote companies trying to explore new industries by trying to stimulate investment. This brought in a lot of revenue for the kingdom.
Up until the 19th Century, the Ottoman Empire had been a thorn in the side for Europe, constantly invading, or at least threatening to invade. They armies were strong and they put a lot of strain on the Eastern European Nations. However, their once strong armies, like the empire, began crumbling by the time the 19th Century rolled around. With the fall of the Ottoman Empire eminent, excess land was about to open up. Seeing this, the major European nations of Russia, the Austrian Empire, Britain, France, and the Kingdom of Sardinia all descended on the the declining Ottoman Empire. This caused much dispute between these nations, not only in the middle east, but also in Europe. It caused a serious relapse of the Concert of Europe. With all this fighting, some feathers were ruffled, causing some alliances to be broken. This allowed for major political shifts, like the Unification of Germany, and the Reunification of Italy.